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Thread: Firearms in Sweden

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    Firearms in Sweden

    22645928_2.jpg2478262485_21a547e3c7_o.jpg70951039018.jpgthA90UID57.jpgthZA7B3TZ1.jpg
    written by Mats Persson

    The oldest firearm ever found in Sweden is a small bronze gun named Loshultbössan. It's dated to the mid 1300s. It was found in a peat bog in the southern parts of Sweden in 1861 - just a few miles into what before the year 1658 used to be Danish territory. The gun is 310 mm long, and the calibre is 30-36 mm.
    Knallbössan is of the same age, it was found in the harbour of Stockholm some years ago. This gun is made of steel, 128 mm long and the calibre is 8-10 mm.

    In the battle of Brunkeberg in 1471 the Danish King Christian I lost a couple of teeth when he was hit by a bullet fired from a Swedish musket.

    In the Russian war of 1555-57 most Swedish shooters were armed with muskets instead of crossbows.

    In the Seven Year War (1563-70) against Denmark, about half of the Swedish Infantry was equipped with musket, the rest used pikes. But when Erik XIV was dethroned in 1568 almost all infantrymen had muskets. Foot-soldiers with musket and no pikes worked well against the Russian Infantry in the many Russian wars between 1570 and 1595, but caused a disastrous loss against the heavy Polish Cavalry in the battle of Kirkholm in 1605. The pike was then put back in service and stayed for more than a hundred years.

    Soon after Gustaf II Adolf had intervened in Germany, at the first battle of Breitenfeld (1631), the Swedish army won a decisive victory over the Catholic Holy Roman Empire's army. The Catholic foot soldiers were armed with heavy (7-10kg) arquebusiers while the Swedish infantry used much lighter muskets (5kg) that could be fired three times as fast as the enemy's. Somewhere between one forth and half of the Swedish infantry men were equipped with muskets, the rest carried pikes.
    The Swedes also had much lighter guns. The range was no more than 300 metres, but they were easy to handle and the rate of fire was actually higher than for the muskets.

    Even though every infantryman had a musket, and every cavalryman had a carbine and two pistols, the Carolian Army (1676 - 1720) relied heavily on edged weapons such as swords, pikes and bayonets (the later introduced in 1697). The soldiers were trained not to shoot till they could see the whites of the enemies eyes, and as soon as they had fired one round they charged. They never used such unmanly tactics as volley-firing or circulating formations (caracole).

    In 1689 King Karl XI ordered that the local Drill-officers should keep a record of who possessed and not possessed firearms in his area, so that the good King could help to arm the unarmed. The Drill-officer should exercise all fit male in the use of firearms and also fine people who didn't take proper care of there own weapons.

    A very brief history of Swedish Arms manufacturing

    Small Arms

    In the 1500s arms were made by local blacksmiths, as a kind of moonlighting. The payment was often a tax reduction or a small cottage. Firearms were often imported from Europe.

    In the early 1600s king Gustav II Adolf ordered that every blacksmith should deliver a certain amount of arms each year. The local Sheriff was to decide how many and when. A gunsmith could make 40 musket a year. The Sheriff should collect and inspect weapons, and then send them to Stockholm. Due to bad communications the deliveries were often late or irregular.

    In 1620 the same King decided that the best blacksmiths should move to certain towns, and work there. Such towns as Örebro, Arboga, Jönköping, Sundsvall, Söderhamn, Norrtälje and Norrköping. The blacksmiths and gunsmiths still worked in their own workshops, but a kind of cooperation was established. Farmers delivered stocks as a form of tax. Gunsmiths were paid for each lock they made. A "Faktor" was responsible for the assembly of arms. These loosely bonded organizations were called "Faktorier". All firearms were proof-fired in the presence of an Inspector from the War-administration, before they were accepted.
    The state arsenals did not have monopoly and a lot of weapons were still made by privately owned works. Some more exclusive weapons were made by independent gun smiths in Stockholm.
    During the end of the Thirty Year War (1618-48) the annual production of musket was 15000 - 20000 in the whole Kingdom.

    In the 1700s the state arsenals ("Faktorier") were better organized, the blacksmiths in these towns were forced to work for the arsenal. During the Great Northern War (1700-21) the annual production at each of the seven state small arms arsenals was between two- and ten-thousand musket.

    By 1840 the only remaining rifle factories were; Norrtälje, Husqvarna and Carl Gustaf.

    Guns

    Large scale production begun in 1530 by the help of foreign gun makers. Production and quality increased during Gustav II Adolf's reign - much thanks to Walloon iron-workers that imigrated from Holland. By the mid 1600s Sweden made 30-40% of all cannon produced in Europe.

    During the Carolian period the Swedish Army got most of their artillery pieces from four state arsenals, Åkers, Nävekvarn, Ehrendal and Stavsjö.

    But the major export company was the private-owned Finspong, at one time the largest exporter of cannon in Europe. By the time of 1860 Finspong was the only reminding gun manufacturer in Sweden. In 1880 Finspong got competition from Bofors. Being a small country, Sweden could only support one gun-manufacturer in the long run. Due to older methods of production Finspong lost the the battle.



    Swedish State Armouries
    Arboga faktori Founded by the Crown in the 1560s. Located to the town of Arboga. Production of muskets and armour.

    Carl Gustafs stads gevärsfaktori Founded in 1812. Still in business. Located to the town of Eskilstuna. In 1771 a tax-free zone for blacksmiths was founded in "Karl Gustafs stad" - the town of Karl Gustaf (named after king Karl X Gustaf) - also known as the town of Eskilstuna.
    After the loss of Finland in the Russian war of 1809, the Swedish arms industry was reorganized, and a new rifle-factory was founded in the town of Carl Gustaf. In 1943 it became a part of FFV, and different names have been used ever since; GevärsFaktoriet (GF), GF-vapen, Carl Gustaf (CG), FFV-Carl Gustaf. It was bought by Bofors some years ago (Bofors-Carl Gustaf).

    Jönköpings gevärsfaktori Founded in 1620 Closed in 1795 Located to the town of Jönköping. When the waterfalls at Jönköping started to dry up the water-driven mills were moved to nearby Husqvarna. Later on more and more of the resources were relocated to Husqvarna. During he Great Northern War (1700-21), Husqvarna/Jönköping gevärsfaktori was the largest of the seven state armouries, with 1000 employees and an anual production of 11000 firearms. In 1795 the last parts of the Jönköping armoury were moved to Husqvarna.

    Gevärsfaktoriet i Husqvarna Founded in 1689. Closed in 1972. Located to the town of Huskvarna. In 1689 a millingworks for rifle bores was founded at the waterfalls at Husqvarna, it later became a rifle-factory. It was privatized in 1757 and became a limited company in 1867, as Husqvarna Vapenfabriks AB (HVA). After the Danish-Prussian War of 1864 and the Franco-Preussian war of 1870-71, military orders dropped. To survive Husqvarna begun making hunting rifles in 1877. Later they also started to make motorcycles, chainsaws and sewing-machines. The small arms division was sold to FFV (Carl Gustaf) in 1969, and production moved to Eskilstuna in the early 1970s.

    Linköping Production in 1800

    Meldersteins bruk Started making guns in 1741 Located near Råneå in the very north Made extremely few weapons. Only a handfull rifles are known today.

    Norrköping Founded in 1620

    Norrtälje gevärsfaktori Founded in 1623 Closed in 1840 The factory and the whole town were burnt down by the Russians in 1719.

    Ronneby Sundsvall Founded in 1620

    Gevärsfaktoriet i Söderhamn Founded in 1620 Closed in 1814. Burnt down by the Russians in 1721, rebuilt in 1725. After the loss against Russia in 1809, Söderhamn was considered to be too close to the coast. Therefore all resources were moved to Eskilstuna (Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori) in 1812.

    Uleåborg Located in Oulu, Finland Founded sometime about 1715 Closed around 1738

    Örebro Founded in 1620 Closed in 1795.
    Some Swedish Works and Factories

    A list of some private works and factories, which are or have been manufacturing arms.
    Bofors AB Founded in 1873 Still in business. Located close to the town of Karlskoga. An hammer mill was founded at the Bofors waterfalls in the mid 1600s. Bofors became a limited company in 1873. In 1878 Bofors announced that they had succeeded in making the first sound high quality cast steel in the world, and the Swedish Navy ordered a 4 pdr piece to test this new steel. The cast was made in 1879 and machined by Finspong. It proved to withstand a pressure of 5000 atm, compared to the 3900 atm that the strongest pig iron gun from Finspong would handle. During the following years Bofors made a couple of trial guns, witch all seems to have been quite successful.

    'Barnekow cried for fourteen days because he could not manage to blow the gun to pieces. He was religious and did not dare to curse.'

    In 1983 the Swedish Navy placed its first order for Bofors guns.
    The first independent gun design was the 15 cm M/89 naval gun for the Göta class. In 1892 Bofors introduced its ingenious single-motion ogival breech-screw, adopted by the Navy as M/94, which put the company in lead of medium calibre naval artillery for decades.
    Except for an experimental gun from 1893 the first Bofors-designed field-gun was the m/10 howitzer.
    In 1895 the major owner, Alfred Nobel, had a powder mill built close to the original ironworks.


    Erik Anton Berg (EAB) Located to the town of Eskilstuna. Bayonets

    Eskilstuna Jernmanufaktur AB (EJ AB) Located to the town of Eskilstuna. Commonly known as "Jernbolaget". Bayonets Known as manufacturer of exelent cutlery.

    Finspong styckebruk Founded in mid 1500s Located to Finspång Started as an ironworks, limited production of guns begun in 1580. From mid 1600s to mid 1800s Finspong was the largest Swedish exporter of guns. However Finspong only made casted pig iron guns which were not competitive with the Bofors cast-steel guns or the forged steel guns from Krupp in Gearmany. Bought by an English consortium (Beardmore/Olsson) in 1900. The company was split in 1902. Bofors eventually bought the artillery division and closed it down in 1910-11.

    Kvarnbacka Guns

    Nordiska Artilleriverkstäderna Created in 1902 Located to Finspång and Lotorp In 1902 Finspong was split in three parts, the artillery division of Finspong formed Nordiska Artilleriverkstäderna. The Beardmore/Olsson consortium sold a big part of its shares to Bofors in 1903 and some time later Bofors gained control of the whole company. It was closed down in 1910-11.

    Rosenfors Bruk Located to Rosenfors Blades
    (Was later contracted to manufacture the m/40 pistol, but failed miserably and Husqvarna had to step in.)

    Stensta Guns

    Stockholms vapenfabrik Founded in 1880 Small calibre Guns and Machine guns Manufactured a good part of the various QF 6pdr for the Royal Swedish Navy. Stockholms vapenfabrik never had the means to manufacture barrels, so all tubes were bought from Bofors. Bought by The Maxim Nordenfelts Guns and Ammunition Company Ltd in 1886. Later owned by Vickers. Bofors bought some shares in the early 1900s and in 1906 they aquired enough shares to take control. Merged with Nordiska Artilleriverkstäderna in 1907 and all resources were moved to Finspång.

    Svalling Family busines with production facilities at several places (Mölntorp, Eskilstuna) Blades

    Säter Wedevåg Production in 1720 and in 1730 Blades Stopped making swords in 1755 (Still make very good drills though).

    Wira bruk Founded in 1635. Closed in 1948. Since 1970 Wira bruk is a museum. Located to Vira, north-east of Stockholm. From the start until the late 1700s, Wira made most of the Swedish Army's swords, rapiers and bayonets. During the Carolian era (1676 - 1720) Wira made no less then 277000 rapier model 1685, and a vast number of spare blades for the same model.
    (Consider that the Swedish army only numbered about one eighth that meny and you can imagine why this period is called the Great Nordic War.)

    Åkers styckebruk. Founded in 1609 Out of business in the late 1800s. Located to Åker Started as an ironworks, begun making guns in 1654. Lost against Finspongs styckebruk. Åkers krutbruk still makes powder though.

    Överums bruk. Founded in 1655 Made guns from 1655 to 1783 circa.

    Swedish Military Designations



    Weapons

    written by Mats Persson

    The general pattern

    Used from 1895 to 1958 circa.

    DSC_0080-15.jpgCarl Gustav 04.jpgf3bc463a41a8c4e618cf9be49035083a.jpgGustav-Jung.jpgcarl_gustav_m45_swedish_k_smg-3d-model-20226-154257.jpg
    CALIBRE TERM YEAR

    e.g.
    6,5mm Gevär m/96 (6.5 millimetre rifle model 96)

    The Army used a diminutive m for modell, followed by a slash and the last two digits in the year of adoption.
    Like most other countrys Sweden uses the comma as decimal marker.
    e.g.
    6,5mm Karbin m/94 (6.5 millimetre carbine model 94)
    10,5cm Kanon m/34 (10.5 centimetre gun model 34)

    The Navy used a capital M for modell.
    e.g.
    6,5mm Karbin M/94
    10,5cm Kanon M/34
    Generally speaking there were no differences between Army and Navy models.

    Weapons used for trials were called fm for försöksmodell (experimental model)
    e.g.
    6,5mm Gevär fm/23

    Sometimes the suffix mt for med tillbehör (with accessories)
    e.g.
    6,5mm Gevär m/96 mt is a m/96 rifle with sling, cleaning brush and oil can

    From 1958 the m was lost.
    e.g.
    6,5mm Kulspruta 58 the FN MAG58 GPMG that was adopted in 1958
    7,62mm Prickskyttegevär 90 the AI AW snipers rifle, adopted in 1990


    Calibres smaller than 6cm in millimetres,
    calibres equal to or larger than 6cm in centimetres.

    Before 1870 or so the calibre of a gun was measured in pounds.
    e.g.
    24£ Granatkanon modell 1852

    In the late 1800s and early 1900s the calibre of a gun was measured in whole centimetres.
    e.g.
    8cm Kanon m/81 had a calibre of 8,4 centimetres,
    6cm Kanon m/89 had a calibre of 57 millimetres.

    Modifications or alternations are often denoted by a trailing capital letter.
    e.g.
    6,5mm Automatgevär m/42B is a modification of the Ag m/42 (Ljungman AG42).
    e.g.
    9mm Kulsprutepistol m/45B is an alternation of the Swedish K SMG.



    Modifications were normally carried out on all weapons in inventory, so once the modification of the Ag m/42 was effectuated there were only Ag m/42B left.
    Alternations, of course, only concerned newly made weapons, so there could be two or more alternations of a weapon in service at the same time. To describe two or more alternations you put the letter, or letters, of the alternation inside a parenthesis.
    e.g.
    9mm Kulsprutepistol m/45 (B) means Kpist m/45 and Kpist m/45B.

    At major modifications the year of the modification was sometimes added to the year of adoption.
    e.g.
    20mm Automatkanon m/40-70 was adopted in 1940 and modified in 1970.


    Some of these denotations are not official, but invented by collectors.
    e.g.
    6,5mm Karbin m/94-14 is the unofficial denotation for an m/94 carbine with bayonet mount to accept the m/14 bayonet.
    6,5mm Gevär m/96-38 is the unofficial denotation for a m/96 rifle rebuilt to a m/38 rifle.

    Some guns intended for other countrys but confiscated by the Swedish government in the beginning of WW2 got the first letter in the name of that country as a suffix.
    A for Argentina, H for Holland, P for Poland, S for Siam
    e.g.
    40mm Luftvärnsautomatomatkanon m/36 A
    40mm Luftvärnsautomatomatkanon m/36 H
    40mm Luftvärnsautomatomatkanon m/36 P

    Some exceptions

    The Browning MMG 6,5 mm kulspruta m/14-29 is not a modification of the 6,5 mm kulspruta m/14 (designed by Schwarzlose). The reason why the m/14-29 got the year 1914 in its denotation is that it inherited the water-jacket as well as the tripod from the m/14 MMG.

    For some strange reasons the H&K G3 was designated 7,62mm Automatkarbin 4
    and the FN FNC was designated 5,56mm Automatkarbin 5

    Beginning in the late 1950s some weapons got four-digit numbers. e.g.
    9 cm Pansarvärnspjäs 1110 the 9 cm recoil-less AT-gun introduced in 1958
    10,5cm Haubits 4140 a Bofors 10.5cm howitzer
    12cm Luftvärnsautomatkanon 4501 a Bofors 12 cm AAA-gun
    These four-digit numbers originates from a military equipment designation system, intoduced at the same period of time, and has nothing to do with the year of the model (the m-slash).

    Unfortunately the Coast Artillery have lately started using a new pattern - even retroactively.


    TERM CALIBRE/YEAR

    e.g.
    Kustartilleripjäs 7,5/57 is a turret mounted 7.5cm coast defence gun adopted in 1957 and originally denoted 7,5 cm Kustartilleripjäs m/57 .
    Kustartilleripjäs 12/70 is a turret mounted 12cm coast defence gun adopted in 1970 and then named 12 cm Kustartilleripjäs m/70 (nickname: Ersta).

    Vehicles

    Armoured vehicles

    Old pattern




    TERM YEAR

    e.g.
    Stridsvagn m/39 is a light tank adopted in 1939

    Some tanks made by more than one manufacturer got a suffix to tell them apart
    e.g.
    Stridsvagn m/40 L was made by Landsverk
    Stridsvagn m/40 K was made by KMV

    Some tanks made in different configurations got a suffix to tell them apart
    e.g.
    Stridsvagn m/42 EH had a single engine and a hydraulic gearbox
    Stridsvagn m/42 TH had two engines and a hydraulic gearbox
    Stridsvagn m/42 TM had two engines and a electro-mechanical gearbox

    New pattern




    TERM NUMBER

    e.g.
    Stridsvagn 103 (the S-tank)

    On tanks the first part of the number is the calibre of the main armament.
    e.g.
    Stridsvagn 81 was the first tank with a 8cm gun (Centurion MkIII)
    Stridsvagn 101 was the first tank with a 10.5cm gun (Centurion MkX), when Stridsvagn 81 was up gunned with the same 10.5cm gun it was renamed Stridsvagn 102. Hence the S-Tank became Stridsvagn 103. Note that there are also Infanterikanonvagn 102 (the second Infantry escort gun with a 10.5cm gun) and Infanterikanonvagn 103 , entirely different vehicles but also armed with 10.5cm guns.

    When some tanks became obsolete as tanks they were still used as Infantry escort guns. They then got a new name.
    e.g.
    Stridsvagn m/42 EH was renamed Infanterikanonvagn 73 , because it then became the third Infantry escort gun armed with a 7.5cm gun.


    Trucks

    Old pattern




    TERM YEAR

    e.g.
    Lastbil m/42, a Volvo truck adopted in 1942.

    New pattern


    TERM NUMBER

    Three or four digit numbers where;
    the first digit indicates the type of vehicle (9 is a jeep or a cross-country truck)
    for trucks the second digit is the approximate maximum load in tons
    the third digit is the numbering of this vehicle
    the fourth optional digit denotes the version of this vehicle
    e.g.
    Lastterrängbil 939 was the 9th cross-country truck in the 3 ton range (Volvo Viking)
    Personlastterrängbil 903 was the 3:rd jeep (Volvo L3314)
    Pansarvärnsterrängbil 9031 was a 903 with a 9cm RCL AT-gun
    Pansarvärnsrobotterrängbil 9032 was a 903 armed with the Bofors ATGM "Bantam"

    Latest pattern


    TERM NUMBER

    Two digit numbers
    e.g.
    Terrängbil 11 is a jeep (Volvo 4x4 C303)
    Terrängbil 40 is a cross-country truck (Scania 6x6 SBAT 111)

    Aircrafts


    TYPE NUMBER NAME

    e.g.
    J35 Draken

    When an aircraft is used for more then one role the types are put together, with the most significant role in front.
    e.g.
    JA37 Viggen is an intercepter with attack capability.
    which is not the same as AJ37 Viggen an attack aircraft with the capability to intercept.
    The air frame is called Flygplan 37 (Fpl 37).

    Types:

    J Jakt intercepter
    A Attack attack
    S Spaning photo reconnaissance
    Sh Spaning, hav maritime surveillance
    B Bomb bomber
    T Torped torpedo-bomber
    Sk Skol trainer
    Tp Transport cargo
    Hkp Helikopter helicopter

    Terms




    Swedish

    English

    Allmålskanon, Allmkan Multi-purpose gun
    Artillerikanonvagn Self-propelled gun
    Automatpjäs, Apj Automatic piece of ordnance
    Automatkanon, Akan Automatic cannon
    Automatkarbin, Ak Assault rifle
    Automatgevär, Ag Semi-automatic rifle
    Bandkanon, Bkan Self-propelled gun
    Bandvagn, Bv Tracked cross country vehicle
    Berghaubits Mountain howitzer
    Dubbelautomatpjäs, Dbalpj Automatic piece of ordnance in twin mounting
    Dubbelpjäs, Dblpj Artillery piece in twin mounting
    Enkelpjäs, Epj Artillery piece in singel mounting
    Fästningshubits, Fsthaub Fortress howitzer
    Gevär, G Rifle
    Granatkastare, Grk Mortar
    Granatgevär, Grg Recoil-less rifle
    Haubits, Haub Howitzer
    Infanterikanon, Ik Infantry support gun, Anti-tank gun (older)
    Infanterikanonvagn, Ikv Infantry escort gun / Light tank
    Kanon, Kan Gun/Cannon
    Kaponjärkanon, Kapkan Emplacement gun
    Karbin, K Carbine
    Kulspruta, Ksp Machine-gun
    Kulsprutegevär, Kg Light machine-gun
    Kulsprutepistol, Kpist Sub-machine-gun
    Kustartillerikanon, Kakan Coast-defence gun
    Kustartilleripjäs, Kapj Coast-defence gun
    Lastbil, Lb Truck
    Lastterrängbil, Ltgb Cross country truck
    Luftvärnsautomatkanon, Lvakan Automatic anti-aircraft gun
    Luftkanon, Lk Anti-aircraft gun (older)
    Luftvärnskanon, Lvkan Anti-aircraft gun
    Luftvärnsrobot, Lvrb Anti-aircraft guided missile
    Pansarbandvagn, Pbv Armored personnel carrier
    Pansarbil, Pb Armoured car
    Pansarskott, Pskott Light anti-tank weapon
    Pansarvärnskanon, Pvkan Anti-tank gun
    Pansarvärnskanonvagn, Pvkv Tank destroyer
    Pansarvärnspjäs, Pvpj Anti-tank gun
    Pansarvärnsrobot, Pvrb Anti-tank guided missile
    Personbil, Pb Automobile
    Personterrängbil, Ptgb Jeep
    Pistol, P Pistol
    Positionshaubits, Poshaub Siege howitzer
    Prickskyttegevär, Psg Snipers rifle
    Revolver, Rev Revolver
    Robot, Rb Guided missile
    Snabbskjutande kanon, Ss.K. Rapid-fire gun (older)
    Stormkanonvagn, Sav Infantry escort gun
    Stridsfordon, Strf Infantry fighting vehicle
    Stridsvagn, Strv Main battle tank
    Terrängbil, Tgb Wheeled cross country vehicle
    Torndubbelautomatpjäs, Tdblapjäs Automatic guns in two gun turret
    Torndubbelpjäs, Tdblpj Guns in two gun turret
    Tornpjäs, Tpj Turret mounted gun
    Undervattensbåtskanon, Ubk Submarine gun

    Bofors

    Bofors, as a company, never used the "m/"-type denotations, as the year of adoption of one army was irrelevant to other costumers.
    Instead they used the following pattern:


    CALIBRE BARREL-LENGTH PROJECTILE-WEIGHT / MUZZLE-VELOCITY

    e.g.
    75 mm L/52 6,3/840
    Which happens to be an AA-gun of 75mm calibre, with a 52 calibre long barrel, that fires a 6.3kg projectile with a muzzle velocity of 840m/s.
    10,5 cm L/22 14/475
    Is the 105mm field howitzer with a 22 calibre long tube, firing a 14kg shell at 475m/s.

    Headstamp Markings on Swedish 6,5 mm Ammunition

    Military ammunition

    written by Mats Persson
    Always Berdan primers Live ammunition; always new cases. Blank and gallery ammunition; always used cases.

    Four radial grooves; half past one half past four half past eight half past ten The last two digits in the year of production; third digit nine o'clock, fourth digit three o'clock.
    A letter code, a numeric code, an abbreviation or a trade mark for the manufacturer six o'clock.
    24 Norrahammars Bruk, Norrahammar (only mfg the cases)
    25 Vulcans Tändsticksfabrik, Tidaholm
    26 Svenska Metallverken AB, Västerås
    026 Svenska Metallverken AB, Västerås
    27 AB Norma projektilfabrik, Åmotfors
    027 AB Norma projektilfabrik, Åmotfors
    28 Jönköpings Vestra Tändsticksfabrik, Jönköping
    30 DWM, Germany
    32 Lidköpings Tändsticksfabrik, Lidköping
    33 Brünn, Czechoslovakia
    34 Jönköpings Tändsticksfabrik, Jönköping
    070 FFV Vanäsverken, Karlsborg
    071 FFV Zakrisdalsverken, Karlstad
    583 Raufoss, Norway
    586 Hirtenberg, Hirtenberg bei Wien, Austria
    H Hirtenberg, Hirtenberg bei Wien, Austria
    K&C Keller & Co, Hirtenberg bei Wien, Austria
    SFM Société Francaies de munition Paris, France
    K Amf Karlsborg
    M Amf Marieberg
    N Nordiska Metallaktiebolaget, Västerås
    Norma AB Norma Projektilfabrik, Åmotfors
    VPT Valtion Patruunatehdas, Finland (Lapua)
    DWM Deutschen Waffen- und Munitionsfabrik, Germany


    Thanks to Gustaf Erik Pasch who invented the safety match, and Ivar Kreuger who profited from the idea, Sweden had a great lot of matchstick factories.
    Matchstick manufacturers (Tändsticksfabrik) often acted as shadow factories for civilian or government-owned ammunition factories.

    [Case manufactured in 1942 by Metallverken]
    Sometimes the text "Amf" twelve o'clock, this means "Ammunitionsfabrik" (ammunition-factory) and refers to the code six o'clock.

    According to some publications Amf means "Armeförvaltningen". This is dead wrong - if you read some of the Swedish Army's ammunition manuals they clearly states that Amf means "Ammunitionsfabrik". Besides - the full name of "Armeförvaltningen" was "Kungl Arméförvaltningens Tygavdelning" ('The Royal Swedish Army Administration, Ordnance Division') and that's abbreviated "KAFT", not "Amf".




    [Case manufactured in 1941 by Amf Karlsborg]
    Older cases often have a crown twelve o'clock, this normally means that the ammunition have been manufactured by a state ammunition factory, i.e. Amf Karlsborg or Amf Marieberg.

    [Case manufactured in 1941 by DWM]
    But it seems like the crown also appears on ammunition made in France and Germany - by SFM and DWM.



    Sometimes an "E" twelve o'clock, this means that the case is made of brass-plated steel instead of brass.

    E reads "Ersättning" which means substitution.




    Sometimes the manufacturer twelve o'clock - mostly on imported ammunition made by SFM and K&C.

    The code for Amf Zakrisdal 'Z', and the code for Svenska tändsticks AB, Jönköping '31', could be found on boxes but as far as I've been told they didn't manufacture any brass in 6,5x55 - they probably just loaded some 6,5 mm ammunition.

    The code for VPT in Finland was '29', but this code have only been observed on boxes - all cases were marked 'VPT'.

    Of course there are other markings as well!

    Norma's ammunition for practice

    Silvertoped, Fälttorped, Banskyttepatron

    Factory reloaded ammunition - always Berdan primers

    "norma" twelve o'clock

    A code for the year of production, either, one letter six o'clock
    O
    P
    S
    T
    U
    V
    L
    I
    C


    or, two letters, one eight o'clock and one four o'clock
    S D
    S X
    S G
    M N


    Sometimes an "n" twelve o'clock, the year of production nine o'clock and three o'clock and "6.5x55" six o'clock.


    Norma's ammunition for hunting

    [Case manufactured by Norma]

    Always Boxer primers

    "norma" twelve o'clock

    Calibre six o'clock e.g. "6.5x55"
    Last edited by eddsako; 03-11-2018 at 07:35 AM.

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